Operating System(OS) of PC an over view

Operating System(OS) of PC an over view -The one line definition of Operating System we can say, “The system or the method that how we use any device is called the Operating system.”For the pc we have many operating systems Windows, Macintosh, Linux and Unix etc.

For example when we are driving a car, then at this time we are operating the all manual or automatic part or the work of that car. So here we are the operating system for that car, who maintain the alignment between the all part of the car, where we have to make a turn, where we have to push the break and stop. Same for all other things, like for the human body the brain is the operating system which maintain that how we talk, how we walk, how we write, how we read etc.
The PC operating system is the software which make interaction between the hardware resource and the programs or the application which we are using on a computer, at this time when I am typing, the software which make interaction between my keyboard and my screen is called operating system. Most pc have a version of the Windows operating system.

History of Computer Operating Systems

Early Computers could perform a single task, like a calculator, a digital watch. That made for only do one task calculator made for calculating and the digital watch made for show the time. Basic operating system features like “resident monitor”  were developed in the 1950s, which could function  automatically and run different programs to speed up processing. That time the operating system was not in their modern position and more complex forms until 1960s. After that many new hardware feature were added, this enabled use of runtime libraries, interrupts and parallel processing. Parallel processing means we can run two programs at a time. Personal computer became popular in the 1980s, when operating systems were made for them similar concept to those used on larger computers.

In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems. Electronic system of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose system that, for example generated ballistic tables for the military or controlled the printing of payroll check from the data on punched cards. In 1950s as a computer execute only one program at a time. Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems, including batch processing, input/output interrupt, buffering, multitasking spooling, runtime libraries, link-loading, and programs for sorting records in files. These features were included or not included in application software at the option of application programmers, rather than in a separate operating system used by all applications. In 1959 the SHARE Operating System was released as an integrated utility for the IBM 704, and later in the 709 and 7090 mainframes, although it was quickly supplanted by IBSYS/IBJOB on the 709, 7090 and 7094.

During the 1960s, IBM's OS/360 introduced the concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line, which was crucial for the success of the System/360 machines.

The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis; minimalistic operating systems were developed, often loaded from ROM and known as monitors. One notable early disk operating system was CP/M, which was supported on many early microcomputers and was closely imitated by Microsoft's MS-DOS, which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's version of it was called IBM DOS or PC DOS). In the '80s, Apple Computer Inc. (now Apple Inc.) abandoned its popular Apple II series of microcomputers to introduce the Apple Macintosh computer with an innovative Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the Mac OS.
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The introduction of the Intel 80386 CPU chip with 32-bit architecture and paging capabilities, provided personal computers with the ability to run multitasking operating systems like those of earlier minicomputers and mainframes. Microsoft responded to this progress by hiring Dave Cutler, who had developed the VMS operating system for Digital Equipment Corporation. He would lead the development of the Windows NT operating system, which continues to serve as the basic for Microsoft’s operating systems line. Steve Jobs, a co-founder of Apple Inc., started NeXT computer Inc., which developed the NEXTSTEP operating system.

Different Operating Systems

1.    Real-time operating system
2.    Multi-user operating system
3.    Multi-tasking operating system
4.    Distributed operating system
5.    Embedded operating system
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a.     Real-time operating system - A multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applicationsis known as  real-time operating system. To achieve a deterministic nature of behavior,  Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
b.    Multi-user operating system - A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system at the same time. Time-sharing systems and Internet servers can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable multiple-user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems have only one user but may allow multiple programs to run at the same time.
c.    Multi-tasking operating system - A multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running at the same time, from the point of view of human time scales. A single-tasking system has only one running program. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive and co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking, as does Amiga OS. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner.16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking. 32 - bit versions of both Windows NT and Win 9x, used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X used to support cooperative multitasking.
d.    Distributed operating system - A distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.
e.    Embedded operating system - Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix-3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.
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How to know about the operating system you are using

1.    Turn on your PC. Watch as the computer starts up.
2.    Click the "Start" button if there is one. It is found in the lower left corner of the Desktop. A "Start" button means you have the Windows 95 OS or later.
3.    If you do not have a "Start" button, look for other indicators that show what operating system you have.
4.    A Microsoft Windows logo or flag may mean you have a version of Windows that predates Windows 95, such as Windows 3.11., Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8 or Windows 801
5.    If you see a red hat in a corner of your screen, you are running the Red Hat Linux operating system.
6.    If you see a green or blue "L" in a screen corner, you have Lindows or Linspire.
7.    A gray or black footprint in a screen corner indicates you are using a graphical user interface (GUI) called GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) on a form of Linux or UNIX.
8.    The Sun Solaris operating system is being used with X, a graphics system for UNIX, if you have a purple background with "Sun" or "Solaris" being visually indicated on your screen.
9.    Type "winver" without quotation marks in the "Start" menu's search box, then press "Enter."
10.    You may need to choose "Run" in the "Start" menu, then type in "winver" without quotation marks. Press "Enter."
11.    We can also define the operating system as the collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provide common services for computer programs.


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16 comments:

  1. Comprehensive details about the history of the various developments are good I really appreciate the efforts

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  2. Operating System के क्रमिक विकास की कहानी अछी लिखी है । आपका प्रयास प्रसन्सनीय है । धन्यवाद ।

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  3. A good article containing interesting information on the development history of operating systems

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  4. It is an interesting article on the history of so many operating systems of computer system

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  5. Very informative article. Very interesting on the history of various operating systems

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  6. Very interesting topic, thanks to the writer

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  7. Thanks a lot for the comprehensive guidelines and explanation.

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  8. A very good article on the important topic of operating system.

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